- SUBJECT - Select from one of the available DP subjects
- TOPIC - Select a topic of your choosing that "fits" within the subject specific requirements & adheres to the no "double-dipping" rule
- SUPERVISOR: Supervisors should be familiar with the specific discipline/issue under study
- RESEARCH QUESTION (RQ): A research question is a clear and focused question centered on a research topic about a particular issue that a student is interested in
- 5 Steps to Developing a Research Question
- Sample Research Questions
Ask yourself the following:Is your RQ specific?Is it answerable?Is it interesting?Can you address any variables?Do you have sufficient research to back up your claim?
Example research question stems:
To what extent...?
- 3 formal mandatory reflection sessions - which are recorded on the RPPF and worth nearly 18% of your EE grade (see below)
- 3 informal "check-in" sessions
- provide students with advice & guidance in the skills of undertaking the research process
- encourage & support students throughout the research and writing of the extended essay
- discuss the choice of topic with each student and, in particular, help to formulate a well-focused research question which is suitable to the subject of registration and ensure that the chosen research question satisfies appropriate legal and ethical standards
- is familiar with the regulations governing the EE & assessment criteria and check that the student is conforming to any rules stated in the subject guide and is NOT "double-dipping" or using texts that are not permitted
- ensure the student understands the importance of using credible/accurate sources
- monitor the progress of the extended essay to offer guidance and to ensure that the essay is the student’s own work and the student has properly acknowledged all sources
- knows the student well
- shares the student's excitement and curiosity about the topic
- is comfortable establishing a clear work plan with the student
- follows up with timely feedback
|Supervisor Comments on DRAFT|
|Student Reflection in the Extended Essay|
Reflection in the Extended Essay is worth nearly 18% of your overall EE grade!
It is mandatory that students undertake 3 reflection sessions with their EE Supervisor, which includes a short, concluding interview, or viva voce, with their supervisor following the completion of the extended essay. An assessment of this reflection process is made under criterion E (Engagement) and documented using the Reflections on planning and progress form (RPPF).
- Reflection in the extended essay focuses on the student’s progress during the planning, research and writing process. It is intended to help students with the development of their extended essay as well as allowing them the opportunity to consider the effectiveness of their choices, to re-examine their ideas and to decide whether changes are needed.
- The emphasis in the extended essay is on process reflection, characterized by reflecting on conceptual understandings, decision-making, engagement with data, the research process, time management, methodology, successes and challenges, and the appropriateness of sources.
- Students will be encouraged to informally reflect throughout the experience of researching and writing the extended essay, but are required to reflect formally during the reflection sessions with their supervisor and when completing the Reflections on planning and progress form (Reflection in the core)
|Supervisor Comments on Student Reflections|
|3 Reflection Sessions (Criterion E: Engagement)|
|How to Prepare for your 3 Reflection Sessions|
|How the 3 Reflection Sessions are Assessed|
|Writing your 3 Reflections|
- 150-175ish words for each reflection entry
- 150ish words for your 1st & 2nd reflections, 200ish words for your 3rd
- 100ish words for 1st & 2nd reflections, 300ish words for your 3rd
|1st Reflection Session||Initially, I had decided that my EE would would study the relationship between years of training and accuracy in pistol shooting. However, upon discussion, I realized that it would more practical to research on new training methodologies to improve performance in the sport since this will allow me to directly impact athletes in my community. Therefore, I discussed the possibility of exploring how a specific psychological training method effects accuracy in air pistol. The two psychological training methods that I thought of studying were either Mental Image or Mindfulness Meditation Therapy (MMT). Upon reading a 2014 paper from Universal Journal of Psychology titled "The Relationship between Relaxation Techniques and Sport Performance" that compared MMT and Imagery, I learned that there existed a positive correlation between both training methods and performance. However, upon discussion, I concluded that my EE should study MMT instead of Imagery because medication has originated in India and is quite an accepted part of Indian culture. Therefore, the experimental group would be more willing to practice it as compared to Imagery.|
|2nd Reflection Session||During the interim reflection session, I discussed the RQ that I had come up with. Upon discussion, I decided that in order to make the study more focused to a location, I should add the words "from Mumbai" to the RQ. A challenge I faced was in incorporation of various psychological models of sporting performance into the theoretical background of the EE. After reading the paper "Contrasting Concepts of Competitive State Anxiety in Sport" published in the Online Journal of Sports Psychology, I gained a comprehensive understanding of the Inverted-U, Multidimensional-Anxiety and Catastrophe Theories into my EE because I learned that there existed "scant research to offer full support for the Multidimensional Theory" and disagreement amongst sports-scientists over its reliability. I look forward to doing further research on sports psychology to incorporate it in my EE.|
|3rd Reflection Session||
The EE writing process has been an intellectually challenging experience and has taught me how to read, analyse and evaluate findings from research papers. The process was particularly enjoyable because I was able to apply Sports Science theory to favourite sport of 10m Air Pistol
A particular challenge that I faced was in the data-collection process. Since I work as a part-time coach at the local range, I was able to gain the necessary permissions to organize two matches. Initially I had decided to collect data for 50 athletes to both matches. However, I had to reduce this number since I was finding it difficult to coordinate and ensure attendance of 50 athletes to both matches. Therefore, I conducted an experiment of 28 participants. This number was small enough for me to coordinate with, but large enough to conduct the statistical T-Test and test reliability of the results. I am excited about applying the learnings from the EE to my own training programme and to the training programme of my peers.
|Criterion||Mark Awarded||Examiner Commentary|
(Maximum possible marks: 6)
|6||Engagement is excellent. Reflections on decision-making and planning are evaluative. These reflections communicate a high degree of intellectual and personal engagement with the research focus and process of research, demonstrating authenticity and intellectual initiative.|
The following levels correspond to the attainment levels of the rubric for Criterion E: Engagement
|Presentation in the EE|
The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look.
To help achieve this, the following formatting is suggested.
- font, font size and spacing conducive to on-screen marking (ex. Arial)
- page numbering (top right corner of the page)
- no candidate, supervisor, or school name on the title page, page headers, appendices or acknowledgment pages
- the file size must not be more than 10 MB. (Note that the RPPF is uploaded separately and is not part of the overall file size of the essay.)
Submitting the extended essay in the required format will help set the tone of the essay and will aid readability for on-screen assessment by examiners.
|6 Required Elements of the Extended Essay|
Do NOT include your name, ONLY the following:
|Contents Page||A contents page must be provided at the beginning of the extended essay and all pages should be numbered. Please note that an index page is not required and if included will be treated as if it is not present.|
The introduction should tell the reader what to expect in the essay. The introduction should make clear to the reader the focus of the essay, the scope of the research, in particular an indication of the sources to be used, and an insight into the line of argument to be taken. While students should have a sense of the direction and key focus of their essay, it is sometimes advisable to finalize the introduction once the body of the essay is complete.
|Body of the essay||
Research, analysis, discussion and evaluation:
The main task is writing the body of the essay, which should be presented in the form of a reasoned argument. The form of this varies with the subject of the essay but as the argument develops it should be clear to the reader what relevant evidence has been discovered, where/how it has been discovered and how it supports the argument. In some subjects, for example, the sciences, subheadings within the main body of the essay will help the reader to understand the argument (and will also help the student to keep on track). In structuring their extended essay, students must take into consideration the expected conventions of the subject in which their extended essay is registered.
Once the main body of the essay is complete, it is possible to finalize the introduction (which tells the reader what to expect) and the conclusion (which says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved).
Any information that is important to the argument must not be included in appendices or footnotes/endnotes. The examiner will not read notes or appendices, so an essay that is not complete in itself will be compromised across the assessment criteria.
|Conclusion||The conclusion says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved. While students might draw conclusions throughout the essay based on their findings, it is important that there is a final, summative conclusion at the end. This conclusion(s) must relate to the research question posed.|
Works Cited (MLA)
A bibliography is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay. Sources that are not cited in the body of the essay but were important in informing the approach taken should be cited in the introduction or in an acknowledgment. The bibliography must list only those sources cited.
"A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, either as an in-text citation or footnote/endnote. This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the bibliography. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily. How sources are cited varies with the particular referencing style that has been chosen. Page numbers should normally be given when referencing printed material and this is especially so in the case of direct quotations. For some styles this will also be in the citation, in others in the full reference. Once again, it is important to emphasize that there must be consistency of method when citing sources."
|EE Guide: Subject Guides|
Studies in language and literature:
Individuals and societies:
|EE Subject Reports|
|EE & Reflection Examples|
- Conflict, peace and security
- Culture, language and identity
- Environmental and/or economic sustainability
- Equality and inequality
- Health and development
- Science, technology and society
|Assessment in the EE|
|Total Marks Available: 34|
- Research Question
Criterion B: knowledge and understanding (6 Marks)
- Subject Specific Terminology and Concepts
- Discussion and Evaluation
- Research Focus
|EE Writing Tips|
- Don't procrastinate! Devise a plan to work on sections of your essay. Breaking it up into sections makes the writing process more manageable:
- Introduction - be sure to include the actual research question itself in the introduction, the factors being investigated to answer the question, the research subject-specific methodology/approach being used (the type of sources/data you intend to analyze in your own unique way) and why the topic is worth investigating.
- Body - your essay should continuously relate back to the research question in an attempt to answer it and should be broken up into various headings, and maybe even subheadings depending on your topic or subject. Use separate paragraphs under each heading/section to further break up/organize your discussion points. Be careful to avoid writing a narrative essay by simply "retelling" events - instead focus on analyzing the information you've gathered.
- Conclusion - is used to reiterate your key findings and how your points relate to the research question, any limitations regarding your research methods or sources, and to summarize your final analysis
- Works Cited (MLS) or References (APA) - cite as you write using in-text citations (using either MLA or APA referencing style) & provide an alphabetized list of the sources you actually used in your essay. Let Citation Machine do the hard work for you by properly formatting both your in-text & bibliography citations!
- Create an outline. It can help to organize your ideas. Try using Post-it Notes to rearrange your ideas until you find the order you'd like to present your discussion points/analysis
- Just start writing! You don't even need to begin writing in complete sentences. Just get something down on "paper" even if it's just bullet points. You can also write each section in whatever order you prefer. In fact, it's not uncommon to write the introduction section last!
- You're not looking for perfection with your 1st DRAFT. The goal is to write a complete draft so you can receive the BEST feedback since your supervisor can only read 1 draft. After your feedback session, you'll have the opportunity to make any edits or revisions to "perfect" your essay to your liking, and please reach out to me with any formatting or presentation questions!